Producing stem cells from other persons would be a major step forward.
Usually, stem cells are made from cells from your own body. Taking a cell from your body, like a skin cell, and converting it into a stem cell is a time-consuming and very expensive process.
However, if you could use ready-made stem cells derived from other people, this would hasten the process considerably. You can pick prepared stem cells from the shelf and immediately implant them.
Also, these stem cells could be acquired from young people, so that these stem cells are also younger and less damaged. This is very interesting, because mostly elderly people would need stem cell treatments and creating stem cells from their already aged cells yields stem cells of lower quality compared to stem cells extracted from young people.
The Nobel prize winner Shinya Yamanaka is setting up a stem cell bank with stem cells of other people, tweaking specific receptors on the stem cells (HLA receptors), so that these stem cells won’t be rejected by a considerable part of the population.
Such stem cells could be produced in large quantities, can be of better quality when derived from a young person and would be immediately available, which would all entail huge advantages.
In the future, new technologies like CRISPR-cas 9 will allow scientist to tweak stem cells even more, giving them all kinds of new qualities, like evading rejection by the host, being more powerful, specific or versatile, among other things.
Source: Scientific American
We are often being told - especially by sellers of food supplements and skin cremes- that antioxidants slow down the aging process. Antioxidants would delay aging by mopping up reactive free radicals that otherwise damage our DNA. These dreadful free radicals are produced as a side effect by our metabolism.
But mounting evidence shows that antioxidants don’t slow down aging. And the free radicals aren’t always the bad guys. Free radicals can even function as a benign warning sign, revving up the cell’s defense mechanisms, like detoxification enzymes and repair proteins, protecting our cells against age-related damage.
Studies have shown that genetically modified worms that produce more free radicals, live 32% longer. Giving worms a weed-controlling herbicide that creates a surge in free radical production makes these worms even live 58% longer.
While free radicals aren’t always bad, antioxidants can be damaging. A large meta-analysis of 230 000 patients has shown that people who take antioxidants have an increased rate of death.
In conclusion, taking antioxidants isn’t always a good thing. Of course, when you are deficient of certain antioxidants, you do have to take them to replenish the ranks. But taking extra antioxidants to slow down the aging process doesn’t seem to work unfortunately. Meanwhile, aging seems much more complex than just free radicals damaging our cellular machinery.
Author: Kris Verburgh, MD
A Mitochondrial Superoxide Signal Triggers Increased Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Wen Yang, Siegfried Hekimi. PLoS Biology, 2013.
Is the oxidative stress theory of ageing dead? Pérez VI et al. Biochim Biophys Acta, 2009. Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. Bjelakovic, G. et al. JAMA, 2007. Picture: cc Wikicommons